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Title: Stress-induced roller coaster model of autophagy leads to autophagic cell death
Authors: Bhutia, Sujit Kumar
Mukhopadhyay, Subhadip
Keywords: Autophagy
Annexin A2
Autophagic cell death
Serum starvation
Issue Date: Nov-2019
Citation: 9thInternational Symposium on Autophagy -2019
Abstract: Autophagy can either be cytoprotective or promote cell death in a context-dependent manner in response to stress. How autophagy leads to autophagic cell death requires further clarification. In this study, we document a nonlinear roller coaster form of autophagy oscillation when cells are subjected to different stress conditions. Serum starvation induces an initial primary autophagic peak at 6 h that is sufficient to reduce autophagy at 24 h by replenishing cells with de novo fluxed nutrients, but protracted stress leads to a secondary autophagic peak around 48 h. Time kinetic studies indicate that the primary autophagic peak is reversible, whereas the secondary autophagic peak is irreversible and leads to cell death. Key players involved in different stages of autophagy including initiation, elongation and degradation during this oscillatory sequence were identified. A similar molecular pattern was intensified under apoptosis-deficient conditions. mTOR was the central molecule regulating this autophagic activity, and upon knockdown a steady increase of autophagy without any non-linear fluctuation was evident. An unbiased proteome screening approach was employed to identify the autophagy molecules potentially regulating these autophagic peaks. Annexin A2 was identified as a unique stress-induced protein involved in modulating the point of irreversible autophagy leading to cell death through interaction with mTOR and altering its spatiotemporal cellular localization.
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