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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2080/1561

Title: Vacuum Technology and Processes for Metallurgical Applications
Authors: Karak, S K
Keywords: Vacuum Technology
Metallurgical application
Issue Date: Nov-2011
Citation: A Short Term Course On Vacuum Technology and Process Applications, 11-21 November 2011, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Abstract: Vacuum is useful in a variety of processes and devices. Its first widespread use was in the incandescent light bulb to protect the filament from chemical degradation. The chemical inertness produced by a vacuum is also useful for electron beam welding, cold welding, vacuum packing and vacuum frying. Ultra-high vacuum is used in the study of atomically clean substrates, as only a very good vacuum preserves atomic-scale clean surfaces for a reasonably long time (on the order of minutes to days). High to ultra-high vacuum removes the obstruction of air, allowing particle beams to deposit or remove materials without contamination. This is the principle behind chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, and dry etching which are essential to the fabrication of semiconductors and optical coatings, and to surface science. The reduction of convection provides the thermal insulation of thermos bottles. Deep vacuum lowers the boiling point of liquids and promotes low temperature outgas...
Description: Copyright belongs to proceeding publisher
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2080/1561
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